Leonurus japonicus
[Chinese Motherwort, Motherwort]
DSC02359 (09)
DSC02364 (09)
DSC02360 (09)
DSC02366 (09)
DSC02363 (09)
DSC02362 (09)


P2120038 (17)
P2120037 (17)
DSC09681 (14)
DSC03508 (14)
DSC03505 (14)

Close-up views:

DSC02162 (14)
DSC03587 (14)
P4290038 (17)
DSC00549 (14)
DSC04382 (14)

The seed is elongated and about 2 millimetres long.

DSC08127 (15)
DSC08125 (15)
DSC08119 (15)
Plant Notes

| Last updated: June 2023 |

I had a special interest on this plant because it had naturalized in my pot over time. Also, it is a beautiful plant when the erected whorled flowers along the erected stem are in full bloom. So far, it was the only cultivated plant that had thrived for many generations in my potted area. However, it is unlikely to make it in the wild due to the slow germination of the seeds and hence, would not be able to compete with fast-growing wild plants. Upon matured, there will be hundreds of seeds ready to drop to the ground upon the slightest movement of the plant such as the impact by rain drops.

Online Resources

Online Resources: | Plants of the World Online | Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) | Flora of China | Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) |

Publications | 2023 | 2022 | 2021 | 2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | Before 2010 |

[2023] Wang Y, Wang J, Garran TA, Liu H, Lin H, Luo J, Yuan Q, Sun J, Dong W, Guo L. Genetic diversity and population divergence of Leonurus japonicus and its distribution dynamic changes from the last interglacial to the present in China. BMC Plant Biol 2023;23(1):276. | Read article |

[2023] Wei QH, Cao XX, Xu DF, Wang ST, Zhang JS, Zhang H. Anti-inflammatory labdane diterpenoids from the aerial parts of Leonurus japonicus. Phytochemistry 2023;210:113646. | Read abstract |

[2023] Zhang L, Khoo CS, Xiahou Z, Reddy N, Li Y, Lv J, Sun M, Fan H, Zhang X. Antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of extracts from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 2023 Apr 17:1-22. | Read abstract |

[2023] Zhang S, Nie H, Yang Y, Yang L, He J. Activating blood circulation, anti-inflammatory and diuretic effects of Leonurus japonicus extract on a rat model of trauma blood stasis and its phytochemical profiling. Chem Biodivers 2023;20(3):e202201176. | Read abstract |


[2022] Li Y, Jia Q, Zhang M, Kang L, Li Z, Liu Y, Zhang H, Hu P. Isolation of three glucaric acids from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. by using high-speed countercurrent chromatography combined with semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. J Sep Sci 2022;45(13):2140-2147. | Read abstract |

[2022] Park MN, Um ES, Rahman MA, Kim JW, Park SS, Cho Y, Song H, Son SR, Jang DS, Kim W, Shim BS, Kim KI, Jang E, Kim B, Kim Y. Leonurus japonicus Houttuyn induces reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis via regulation of miR-19a-3p/PTEN/PI3K/AKT in U937 and THP-1 cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2022;291:115129. | Read abstract |

[2022] Shi XQ, Chen G, Tan JQ, Li Z, Chen SM, He JH, Zhang L, Xu HX. Total alkaloid fraction of Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Promotes angiogenesis and wound healing through SRC/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. J Ethnopharmacol 2022;295:115396. | Read abstract |

[2022] Sun HF, Li Z, Jiang X, Yan Y, Wang H, Yang H, Wei MY, Li N. First report of leaf blight caused by Alternaria alternata on Leonurus japonicus in China. Plant Dis 2022 Nov 9. | Read article |

[2022] Wang J, Mao Y, Ma Y, Yang J, Jin B, Lin H, Tang J, Zeng W, Zhao Y, Gao W, Peters RJ, Guo J, Cui G, Huang L. Diterpene synthases from Leonurus japonicus elucidate epoxy-bridge formation of spiro-labdane diterpenoids. Plant Physiol 2022;189(1):99-111. | Read article |

[2022] Zhao ZH, Yao ZH, Lin SJ, Chu G, Mu KQ, Wang Y, Bi KS, Wang TJ, Li Q, Liu R. Leonurus japonicus Houtt. (Motherwort): Systematic research through chemical profiling, stability under controlled conditions and pharmacokinetic analysis on screening Q-markers for quality control. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2022;213:114707. | Read abstract |


[2021] Kang EY, Kim HK, Jung JY, Kim JH, Woo TK, Choi JI, Kim JH, Ahn C, Lee HG, Go GW. Combined extract of Leonurus japonicus Houtt, Eclipta prostrata L., and Pueraria lobata Ohwi improved hot flashes and depression in an ovariectomized rat model of menopause. Foods 2021;10(1):180. | Read article |

[2021] Park J, Lee J, Lee W. The complete mitochondrial genome of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) isolated from Leonurus japonicus in Korea. Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021;6(1):62-65. | Read article |

[2021] Tian ZH, Liu F, Peng F, He YL, Shu HZ, Lin S, Chen JF, Peng C, Xiong L. New lignans from the fruits of Leonurus japonicus and their hepatoprotective activities. Bioorg Chem 2021;115:105252. | Read abstract |

[2021] Zhang W, Zhang Y, Chen S, Zhang H, Yuan M, Xiao L, Lu Y, Xu H. Trigonelline, an alkaloid from Leonurus japonicus Houtt., suppresses mast cell activation and OVA-induced allergic asthma. Front Pharmacol 2021;12:687970. | Read article |

[2021] Zong F, Cao Y. Efficacy of carboprost tromethamine combined with Leonurus japonicus for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in high-risk pregnant women: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2021;100(30):e26792. | Read article |


[2020] Du BW, Zhang XJ, Shi N, Peng T, Gao JB, Azimova B, Zhang R, Pu DB, Wang C, Abduvaliev A, Rakhmanov A, Zhang GL, Xiao WL, Wang F. Luteolin-7-methylether from Leonurus japonicus inhibits estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells by suppression of aromatase (CYP19). Eur J Pharmacol 2020;879:173154. | Read abstract |

[2020] Lee J, Kim C, Lee H, Hwang JK. Inhibitory effects of standardized Leonurus japonicus extract and its bioactive leonurine on TNF-α-induced muscle atrophy in L6 myotubes. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2020;30(12):1896-1904. | Read article |

[2020] Li HY, Li Y, Wei WJ, Ma KL, Chen JJ, Gao K. Halimane and labdane diterpenoids from Leonurus japonicus and their anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemistry 2020;172:112280. | Read abstract |

[2020] Tan YJ, Xu DQ, Yue SJ, Tang YP, Guo S, Yan H, Zhang J, Zhu ZH, Shi XQ, Chen YY, Gu Y, Ding XR, Huang SL, Peng GP, Zhou GS, Duan JA. Comparative analysis of the main active constituents from different parts of Leonurus japonicus Houtt. and from different regions in China by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020;177:112873. | Read abstract |

[2020] Wang C, Lv X, Liu W, Liu S, Sun Z. Uncovering the pharmacological mechanism of motherwort (Leonurus japonicus Houtt.) for treating menstrual disorders: A systems pharmacology approach. Comput Biol Chem 2020;89:107384. | Read abstract |

[2020] Yang B, Hu Y, Cheng N, Su Z, Zhong Y, Cao Z, Cao L, Huang W, Wang Z, Xiao W. Anti-inflammatory labdane diterpenoids from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Phytochemistry 2020;173:112223. | Read abstract |

[2020] Yue GG, Liang XX, Li XL, Lee JK, Gao S, Kwok HF, Lau CB, Xiao WL. Immunomodulatory and antitumour bioactive labdane diterpenoids from Leonurus japonicus. J Pharm Pharmacol 2020;72(11):1657-1665. | Read abstract |

[2020] Zhang XJ, Zhong WM, Liu RX, Wang YM, Luo T, Zou Y, Qin HY, Li XL, Zhang R, Xiao WL. Structurally diverse labdane diterpenoids from Leonurus japonicus and their anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. J Nat Prod 2020;83(9):2545-2558. | Read abstract |


[2019] Garran TA, Ji R, Chen JL, Xie D, Guo L, Huang LQ, Lai CJ. Elucidation of metabolite isomers of Leonurus japonicus and Leonurus cardiaca using discriminating metabolite isomerism strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2019;1598:141-153. | Read abstract |

[2019] Hu YM, Liu WJ, Li MX, Li HB, Jiang T, Cheng NB, Huang WZ, Wang ZZ, Zhu HX, Xiao W. Two new labdane diterpenoids from aerial parts of Leonurus japonicus and their anti-inflammatory activity. Nat Prod Res 2019;33(17):2490-2497. | Read abstract |

[2019] Jiang MH, Hu Y, Jiao L, Dong P, Yin S, Zhao ZM, Yang DP, Wang DM. A new labdane-type diterpenoid from Leonurus japonicus. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2019;21(7):627-632. | Read abstract |

[2019] Li HY, Peng X, Jin X, Wei WJ, Ma KL, Li Y, Chen JJ, Gao K. Labdane-type diterpenoids from Leonurus japonicus and their plant-growth regulatory activity. J Nat Prod 2019;82(9):2568-2579. | Read abstract |

[2019] Miao LL, Zhou QM, Peng C, Liu ZH, Xiong L. Leonurus japonicus (Chinese motherwort), an excellent traditional medicine for obstetrical and gynecological diseases: A comprehensive overview. Biomed Pharmacother 2019;117:109060. | Read article |

[2019] Peng W, Huo G, Zheng L, Xiong Z, Shi X, Peng D. Two new oleanane derivatives from the fruits of Leonurus japonicus and their cytotoxic activities. J Nat Med 2019;73(1):252-256. | Read abstract |

[2019] Wen YQ, Gong LY, Wang L, Zhao N, Sun Q, Kamara MO, Ma HY, Meng FH. Comparative pharmacokinetics study of leonurine and stachydrine in normal rats and rats with cold-stagnation and blood-stasis primary dysmenorrhoea after the administration of Leonurus japonicus houtt electuary. J Sep Sci 2019;42(9):1725-1732. | Read abstract |


[2018] He YL, Shi JY, Peng C, Hu LJ, Liu J, Zhou QM, Guo L, Xiong L. Angiogenic effect of motherwort (Leonurus japonicus) alkaloids and toxicity of motherwort essential oil on zebrafish embryos. Fitoterapia 2018;128:36-42. | Read abstract |

[2018] Lai KY, Hu HC, Chiang HM, Liu YJ, Yang JC, Lin YA, Chen CJ, Chang YS, Lee CL. New diterpenes leojaponins G-L from Leonurus japonicus. Fitoterapia 2018;130:125-133. | Read abstract |

[2018] Liu J, Peng C, Zhou QM, Guo L, Liu ZH, Xiong L. Alkaloids and flavonoid glycosides from the aerial parts of Leonurus japonicus and their opposite effects on uterine smooth muscle. Phytochemistry 2018;145:128-136. | Read abstract |

[2018] Tan YJ, Zhou GS, Guo S, Yan H, Zhang J, Zhu ZH, Shi XQ, Yue SJ, Tang YP, Huang SL, Peng GP, Duan JA. Simultaneous optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant and anticoagulation activities of compounds from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. by response surface methodology. RSC Adv 2018;8(71):40748-40759. | Read article |


[2017] Leem HH, Lee GY, Lee JS, Lee H, Kim JH, Kim YH. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity of components from Leonurus japonicus. Int J Biol Macromol 2017;103:451-457. | Read abstract |

[2017] Lee MR, Park KI, Ma JY. Leonurus japonicus Houtt attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in free fatty acid-induced HepG2 cells and mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutrients 2017;10(1):20. | Read article |

[2017] Pitschmann A, Waschulin C, Sykora C, Purevsuren S, Glasl S. Microscopic and phytochemical comparison of the three Leonurus Species L. cardiaca, L. japonicus, and L. sibiricus. Planta Med 2017;83(14-15):1233-1241. | Read abstract |

[2017] Wu HK, Sun T, Zhao F, Zhang LP, Li G, Zhang J. New diterpenoids isolated from Leonurus japonicus and their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Chin J Nat Med 2017;15(11):860-864. | Read abstract |

[2017] Xiao CJ, Liu YC, Luo SH, Hua J, Liu Y, Li SH. Localisation of Two bioactive labdane diterpenoids in the peltate glandular trichomes of Leonurus japonicus by laser microdissection coupled with UPLC-MS/MS. Phytochem Anal 2017;28(5):404-409. | Read abstract |


[2016] Wu HK, Mao YJ, Sun SS, Xu ZY, Ma Y, Cao JX, Qi H, Wu ZF, Li G, Yang WH. Leojaponic acids A and B, two new homologous terpenoids, isolated from Leonurus japonicus. Chin J Nat Med 2016;14(4):303-307. | Read abstract |


[2015] Jiang J, Li Y, Feng Z, Yang Y, Zhang P. Glucaric acids from Leonurus japonicus. Fitoterapia 2015;107:85-89. | Read abstract |

[2015] Rauwald HW, Savtschenko A, Merten A, Rusch C, Appel K, Kuchta K. GABAA receptor binding assays of standardized Leonurus cardiaca and Leonurus japonicus extracts as well as their isolated constituents. Planta Med 2015;81(12-13):1103-1110. | Read abstract |

[2015] Wu H, Wang S, Xu Z, Sun S, Liu H, Wang J, E Y, Lv Y, Dong X, Li G, Zhang L, Shi Y. Isoleojaponin, a new halimane diterpene isolated from Leonurus japonicus. Molecules 2015;20(1):839-845. | Read article |

[2015] Xiong L, Zhou QM, Zou Y, Chen MH, Guo L, Hu GY, Liu ZH, Peng C. Leonuketal, a spiroketal diterpenoid from Leonurus japonicus. Org Lett 2015;17(24):6238-6241. | Read abstract |

[2015] Xiong L, Zhou QM, Peng C, Xie XF, Liu LS, Guo L, He YC, Yang L, Liu ZH. Bis-spirolabdane diterpenoids from Leonurus japonicus and their anti-platelet aggregative activity. Fitoterapia 2015;100:1-6. | Read abstract |


[2014] Budhadev D, Mukhopadhyay B. Synthesis of two trisaccharides related to the hepatoprotective phenylethanoids leonoside E and F isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Carbohydr Res 2014;384:51-55. | Read abstract |

[2014] Kuchta K, Ortwein J, Hennig L, Rauwald HW. ¹H-qNMR for direct quantification of stachydrine in Leonurus japonicus and L. cardiaca. Fitoterapia 2014;96:8-17. | Read abstract |

[2014] Shang X, Pan H, Wang X, He H, Li M. Leonurus japonicus Houtt.: ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional Chinese medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;152(1):14-32. | Read abstract |

[2014] Ye M, Xiong J, Zhu JJ, Hong JL, Zhao Y, Fan H, Yang GX, Xia G, Hu JF. Leonurusoleanolides E-J, minor spirocyclic triterpenoids from Leonurus japonicus fruits. J Nat Prod 2014;77(1):178-182. | Read abstract |


[2013] Fuchino H, Daikonya A, Kumagai T, Goda Y, Takahashi Y, Kawahara N. Two new labdane diterpenes from fresh leaves of Leonurus japonicus and their degradation during drying. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2013;61(5):497-503. | Read article |

[2013] Kuchta K, Volk RB, Rauwald HW. Stachydrine in Leonurus cardiaca, Leonurus japonicus, Leonotis leonurus: detection and quantification by instrumental HPTLC and 1H-qNMR analyses. Pharmazie 2013;68(7):534-540. | Read abstract |

[2013] Peng F, Xiong L, Zhao XM. A bicyclic diterpenoid with a new 15,16-dinorlabdane carbon skeleton from Leonurus japonicus and its coagulant bioactivity. Molecules 2013;18(11):13904-13909. | Read article |

[2013] Xiong L, Peng C, Zhou QM, Wan F, Xie XF, Guo L, Li XH, He CJ, Dai O. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Molecules 2013;18(1):963-973. | Read article |

[2013] Xiong L, Zhou QM, Peng C, Xie XF, Guo L, Li XH, Liu J, Liu ZH, Dai O. Sesquiterpenoids from the herb of Leonurus japonicus. Molecules 2013;18(5):5051-5058. | Read article |

[2013] Zhang Y, Deng S, Qu L, An YT, Wu CH, Han LF, Gao XM, Wang T. Rare syringyl acylated flavonol glycosides from the aerial parts of Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Molecules 2013;18(3):2967-2977. | Read article |


[2012] KLi Y, Chen Z, Feng Z, Yang Y, Jiang J, Zhang P. Hepatoprotective glycosides from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Carbohydr Res 2012;348:42-46. | Read abstract |

[2012] Kuchta K, Ortwein J, Rauwald HW. Leonurus japonicus, Leonurus cardiaca, Leonotis leonurus: a novel HPLC study on the occurrence and content of the pharmacologically active guanidino derivative leonurine. Pharmazie 2012;67(12):973-979. | Read abstract |


[2011] Xie C, Zhang B, Wang D, Kou F, Zhao X, Yang X. Molecular cloning and characterization of an achene-seed-specific promoter from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus Houtt). Biotechnol Lett 2011;33(1):167-172. | Read abstract |


[2010] Chang JM, Shen CC, Huang YL, Shieh BJ, Chen CC. Two new glycosides from Leonurus japonicus. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2010;12(9):740-744. | Read abstract |

[2010] Chen Z, Wu JB, Liao XJ, Yang W, Song K. Development and validation of an UPLC-DAD-MS method for the determination of leonurine in Chinese motherwort (Leonurus japonicus). J Chromatogr Sci 2010;48(10):802-806. | Read abstract |

[2010] Jia Z, Gou J, Sun Y, Yuan L, Tang Q, Yang X, Pei Y, Luo K. Enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens in transgenic Populus tomentosa Carr. by overexpression of an nsLTP-like antimicrobial protein gene from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus). Tree Physiol 2010;30(12):1599-1605. | Read abstract |

[2010] Moon HI. Three diterpenes from Leonurus japonicus Houtt protect primary cultured rat cortical cells from glutamate-induced toxicity. Phytother Res 2010;24(8):1256-1259. | Read abstract |

Before 2010

[2008] Yang X, Wang X, Li X, Zhang B, Xiao Y, Li D, Xie C, Pei Y. Characterization and expression of an nsLTPs-like antimicrobial protein gene from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus). Plant Cell Rep 2008;27(4):759-766. | Read abstract |

[2007] Yang X, Xiao Y, Wang X, Pei Y. Expression of a novel small antimicrobial protein from the seeds of motherwort (Leonurus japonicus) confers disease resistance in tobacco. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007;73(3):939-946. | Read article |

[2006] Romero-González RR, Avila-Núñez JL, Aubert L, Alonso-Amelot ME. Labdane diterpenes from Leonurus japonicus leaves. Phytochemistry 2006;67(10):965-970. | Read abstract |

[2006] Yang X, Li J, Li X, She R, Pei Y. Isolation and characterization of a novel thermostable non-specific lipid transfer protein-like antimicrobial protein from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus Houtt) seeds. Peptides 2006;27(12):3122-3128. | Read abstract |

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